Sunday, December 8, 2019

U.S. Army 8 Person Funeral Detail free essay sample

The OIC is located where the hearse will stop. RECEIVING THE CASKET C-14. As the hearse approaches, the NCOIC orders the detail to ATTENTION and Present, ARMS. Once the hearse has passed the detail, the NCOIC calls the detail to Order, ARMS and Parade, REST. The OIC comes to attention and present arms as the hearse approaches his position. The OIC terminates his salute when the hearse comes to a halt. C-15. After the vehicle has come to a halt, the driver gets out and opens the rear door. The driver prepares the casket for movement to the gravesite by removing the stock. The driver pulls the casket to the rear of the hearse. The OIC, with a nod of his head, signals the NCOIC to move the pallbearers to the end of the hearse, three on each side, to remove the casket. The NCOIC marches the pallbearers into place, then orders Mark time, MARCH; Detail, HALT and Center, FACE. After the pallbearers are facing inward, the individuals closest to the casket will grasp the handrails and pull the casket from the hearse. Each pallbearer, in turn, grasps a casket handle as it reaches him. The OIC will render a hand salute while the casket is being removed. Moving the Casket C-16. On the NCOICs command of Ready, FACE, the pallbearers will execute the appropriate facing movements so that they are all facing the feet of the casket. The NCOIC orders the detail to Forward, MARCH. Led by the OIC, the pallbearers incline to the proper direction to move to the gravesite, ensuring the casket is level and feet first. Once the casket is over the gravesite, the NCOIC commands Mark Time, MARCH, and Detail, HALT. Once at the head of the gravesite, the OIC will come to render a hand salute until the casket is placed on the lowering device. To maintain uniformity the pallbearer NCOIC will command Center, FACE. When pallbearers are facing center, the casket is set on the lowering device. After the casket is set down, the pallbearers come to attention and the OIC will drop his hand salute. MOVING TO THE WEAPONS C-17. On the command Ready, FACE, by the pallbearer NCOIC, the pallbearers all face toward the head of the casket. The next command is Forward, MARCH. The pallbearer s move from the gravesite to the location of the weapons. Just prior to reaching the stacked arms, the firing party NCOIC, and formerly the pallbearer NCOIC, gives Mark Time, MARCH and Detail, HALT. The firing party NCOIC assumes their position and gives a File from the Left, Forward, MARCH. On the command March the firing party performs the proper movements to form a single file to the rear of the weapons. When the firing party are to the rear of the stacked arms, the NCOIC gives Mark Time, MARCH and Detail HALT, and the appropriate facing movement to face the rifles. Retrieving the Weapons and Conclusion of Religious Services C-18. The next command given is Take, ARMS. On the command of execution, the stack man secures the first two weapons. The left and right soldiers receive the weapons from the stack man. The left and right soldiers then pass the weapons to the outside soldiers. The stack man grasps his center weapon. The left and right soldiers step toward the stack and remove their weapons, returning to the position of Attention. Once the left and right soldiers retrieve their weapons, the stack man secures his weapon and comes to the position of Attention. Once all of the firing party is at Order Arms, the firing party NCOIC gives them Parade, REST. The firing party will remain at Parade Rest until the end of the religious services. Once the religious services are over, the Chaplain steps away from the casket. The OIC steps to the head of the casket and renders a hand salute. This is the signal for the firing party NCOIC to command the firing party ATTENTION. Firing of Honors C-19. After bringing the firing party to Attention, the NCOIC gives the command of Ready. At the command of Ready, each rifleman executes Port Arms, faces Half Right, and moves his right foot to the right ten inches. Each rifleman then chambers a round, places his weapon on Fire, and resumes Port Arms. When the firing party has completed the movements, the firing party NCOIC gives the command Aim. On the command of Aim, the detail shoulders their weapons with the muzzles of the weapons at a 45-degree angle from the horizontal. When the NCOIC commands FIRE, the detail fires and returns to Port Arms. On the subsequent commands of Ready, each rifleman pulls and returns the charging handle of his weapon. After the third round is fired each rifleman resumes Port Arms, and the firing party NCOIC commands CEASE FIRE. Each rifleman places his weapon on Safe, resumes the position of Order Arms, and faces Half Left. The firing party NCOIC then commands Present, ARMS for the playing of Taps. The bugler plays Taps. If a bugler is not available, one soldier is positioned to turn on the high quality recording (and is not part of the firing party). STACKING ARMS C-20. After Taps, the NCOIC brings the firing party to Order, ARMS, and then commands Stack, ARMS. On the command of execution, Arms, the stack man grasps the barrel of his rifle and places his rifle directly in front of him. At the same time, the left and right soldiers grasp the barrels of their respective rifles, step toward the center and insert the muzzles through the sling loop of the stack mans weapon. Both soldiers swing the butts of their rifles out and then down to the ground ensuring the stack is steady. The two outside weapons are then passed to the stack man, who adds them to the stack. RETURNING TO GRAVESITE OR SHELTER C-21. After Stack Arms is complete, the NCOIC moves the firing party two steps backward and gives the appropriate facing movement to have the firing party move back to the gravesite. From this position, the NCOIC will form the firing party in two columns by giving the command Column of Two to the Right, MARCH. Once in Column of Two formation, the NCOIC takes the last position, and gives Forward, MARCH. The firing party marches to the gravesite along either side of the casket. Once at the gravesite the NCOIC gives Mark Time, MARCH, and Detail, HALT. The NCOIC gives Center, FACE, to ensure that all of the pallbearers are facing the casket. FOLDING THE FLAG C-22. After the pallbearers have faced the casket, they use their peripheral vision to take their cues fr om the NCOIC. As a unit, the pallbearers reach down and secure the flag. Once flag is secured, the detail folds flag. The flag is first folded with the lower stripe area over the blue field. It is then folded so that the folded edge meets the open edge. The triangular fold is started at the striped end and is continued until only the blue field remains. The flag margin is then tucked in and the flag is ready for presentation. PRESENTING THE FLAG. C-23. After the flag has been folded, it is passed down to the soldier closest to the right side of the OIC. This soldier executes a Half Left as the OIC executes a Half Right and the flag is then passed to the OIC at, chest level. After the pallbearer has passed the flag, he salutes the flag for three seconds then executes Order Arms. The soldier executes a Half Right as the OIC executes a Half Left and resumes their original position. At this time the pallbearers will leave the gravesite. The NCOIC commands Outward, FACE, (pallbearers face towards the head of the casket) and Forward, MARCH. Once the detail is out of the area, the OIC will present the flag to the next of kin or Chaplain, it next of kin is not available. The OIC recites the following passage: |Maam (sir), this flag is presented on behalf of a grateful nation and the United States Army as a token of appreciation for your loved ones | |honorable and faithful service. | C-24. At the conclusion of the remarks and presentation, the OIC will render a hand salute and hold the salute for three seconds then assumes Order, Arms. OIC then executes marching movement and marches back towards the direction of the pallbearers. CONCLUDING THE CEREMONY C-25. The firing party returns to the location of the stacked arms in the same manner as before. When commanded to Take, ARMS, the party retrieves the rifles in the same manner as before. After retrieving the weapons, the NCOIC marches the detail away from the funeral site to clear and inspect the weapons. The firing party will police all of the brass after the service is over and the next of kin have left the area. The OIC is not required to escort the next of kin back to his/her vehicle. 2 SOLDIER FUNERAL DETAIL RECEIVING THE CASKET C-26. The OIC is located where the hearse will stop. The NCO is to the left of the OIC. As the hearse approaches, the OIC brings himself and the NCO to ATTENTION and Present, ARMS. The OIC gives the command of Order, ARMS, after the hearse has come to a halt. The funeral director is responsible for removing the casket from the hearse and placing it on the lowering device at the gravesite. When the casket is being removed from the hearse, the OIC commands Present, ARMS. Once the casket has cleared the peripheral vision of the OIC, then the OIC commands Order, ARMS, and Parade, REST. CONCLUSION OF RELIGIOUS SERVICES C-27. Once the religious services are over, the Chaplain steps away from the casket. The OIC commands ATTENTION. The OIC commands Ready, FACE, and the OIC and NCO face in the direction of the casket. OIC then commands Forward, MARCH, The OIC marches to the head of the casket, and faces the head of the casket, while the NCO marches to the foot of the casket facing the OIC. If a bugler is not available, the NCO moves to the device that will play the high quality recording of Taps. FOLDING THE FLAG C-28. The OIC gives the command to the NCO to secure flag. Once the flag is secure the bugler will play Taps and both the OIC and NCO execute Present, Arms. When Taps is complete, both the OIC and NCO execute Order, Arms. The OIC gives the command to side step march (just far enough to preclude the flag from touching the casket). Once the OIC and NCO have cleared the casket the OIC nods to begin folding the flag. NOTE: If a bugler is not available, once the casket is on the lowering device, the NCOIC will march to the recording device and wait for the Chaplain to conclude religious services. He will play Taps after the OIC is positioned at the head of the casket. When Taps is complete, the NCOIC will march to the foot of the casket and then assist in folding the flag. C-29. The flag is first folded with the lower stripe area over the blue field. It is then folded so that the folded edge meets the open edge. The triangular fold is started at the striped end and is continued until only the blue field remains. While folding the flag the NCO moves towards the OIC. The flag margin is then tucked in by the OIC and the NCO presents the flag to the OIC. Once the NCO presents the flag to the OIC, the NCO renders the hand salute and holds the salute for three seconds then executes Order, Arms. The OIC is ready for presenting the flag to the next of kin. PRESENTING THE FLAG C-30. After the flag has been folded and passed to the OIC, the OIC then moves in the direction of the next of kin and presents the flag to the next of kin while the NCO marches away from the gravesite. The OIC will present the flag to the Chaplain if the next of kin is not available. The OIC recites the following passage: |Maam (sir), this flag is presented on behalf of a grateful nation and the United States Army as a token of appreciation for your loved ones | |honorable and faithful service. | C-31. At the conclusion of the passage and the flag presentation, the OIC will render a hand salute and hold the salute for three seconds then assumes Order, Arms. OIC then executes a marching movement and marches away from the gravesite. CONCLUDING THE CEREMONY C-32. The OIC is not required to escort the next of kin back to his/her vehicle. NOTES C-33. The meaning of the word gravesite also includes a committal shelter. The meaning of the word casket also includes a receptacle containing the cremated remains of the deceased. On windy days, the flag should already be anchored to the casket by the funeral director. If the flag is not secured, the detail will fold the flag immediately after placing the casket on the lowering device, then hand the flag to the OIC. d

Saturday, November 30, 2019

Relevant Cost Essay Example

Relevant Cost Essay CHAPTER 13 SHORT-RUN DECISION MAKING: RELEVaNT COSTING 1 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. Tactical decisions are short run in nature; they involve choosing among alternatives with an immediate or limited end in view. Strategic decisions involve selecting strategies that yield a long-term competitive advantage. 2. Depreciation is an allocation of a sunk cost. This cost is a past cost and will never differ across alternatives. 3. The salary of the supervisor of an assembly line with excess capacity is an example of an irrelevant future cost for an accept-or-reject decision. 4. Past costs can be used to help predict future costs. 5. Yes. Suppose, for example, that sufficient materials are on hand for producing a part for two years. After two years, the part will be replaced by a newly engineered part. If there is no alternative use for the materials, then the cost of the materials is a sunk cost and not relevant in a make-or-buy decision. 6. A complementary effect is the loss of revenue on a secondary product when the primary product is dropped. Thus, complementary effects may make it more expensive to drop a product. 7. A manager can identify alternatives by using his or her own knowledge and experience and by obtaining input from others who are familiar with the problem. . No. Joint costs are irrelevant. They occur regardless of whether the product is sold at the split-off point or processed further. 9. Yes. The incremental revenue is $1,400, and the incremental cost is only $1,000, creating a net benefit of $400. 10. No. If a scarce resource is used in producing the two products, then the product providing the gre atest contribution per unit of scarce resource should be selected. For more than one scarce resource, linear programming may be used to select the optimal mix. 11. If a firm is operating below capacity, then a price that is above variable costs will increase profits. MULTIPLE-CHOICE EXERCISES 13–1e 13–2d 13–3e 13–4c 13–5a 13–6c 13–7c 13–8c 13–9c 13–10c 13–11a 13–12d 3 CORNERSTONE EXERCISES Cornerstone Exercise 13–13 1. There are two alternatives: make the ingredient in-house or purchase it externally. 2. Relevant costs of making the ingredient in-house include direct materials, direct labor, and variable overhead (both manufacturing and marketing in nature). Relevant costs of purchasing the ingredient externally include the purchase price. 3. AlternativesDifferential MakeBuyCost to Make Direct materials$25,000—$25,000 Direct labor15,000—15,000 We will write a custom essay sample on Relevant Cost specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Relevant Cost specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Relevant Cost specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Variable manufacturing overhead7,500—7,500 Variable marketing overhead10,000—10,000 Purchase cost—$60,000(60,000) Total relevant cost$57,500$60,000$(2,500) It is cheaper to make the ingredient in-house. This alternative is cheaper by $2,500. 4. AlternativesDifferential MakeBuyCost to Make Direct materials$25,000—$25,000 Direct labor15,000—15,000 Variable manufacturing overhead7,500—7,500 Variable marketing overhead10,000—10,000 Avoidable fixed plant overhead12,000a—12,000 Purchase cost—$60,000(60,000) Total relevant cost$69,500$60,000$9,500 Now it is cheaper to purchase the ingredient. This alternative is cheaper by $9,500. a$12,000 = $30,000 ? 0. 40 Cornerstone Exercise 13–14 1. costs and benefits of accepting the special order include the sales price of $4, direct materials, direct labor, and variable overhead. No relevant costs or benefits are attached to rejecting the order. 2. If the problem is analyzed on a unit basis: Differential Benefit to AcceptRejectAccept Price$4. 00$—$4. 00 Direct materials(1. 50)—(1. 50) Direct labor(2. 00)—(2. 00) Variable overhead(1. 00)—(1. 00) Decrease in operating income$(0. 50)$0$(0. 50) Operating income will decrease by $5,000 [($0. 50) ? 0,000 units] if the special order is accepted; therefore, the special order should be rejected. Cornerstone Exercise 13–15 1. The two alternatives are to keep the parquet flooring line or to drop it. 2. The relevant benefits and costs of keeping the parquet flooring line include sales of $300,000, variable costs of $250,000, machine rental cost of $30, 000, and supervision cost of $5,000. None of the relevant benefits and costs of keeping the parquet flooring line would occur under the drop alternative. 3. Differential KeepDropAmount to Keep Sales$300,000$—$300,000 Less: Variable expenses250,000—250,000 Contribution margin$50,000$—$50,000 Less: Machine rent(30,000)—(30,000) Supervision(5,000)—(5,000) Total relevant benefit (loss)$15,000$0$15,000 The difference is $15,000 in favor of keeping the parquet flooring line. Cornerstone Exercise 13–16 1. Previous contribution margin of the strip line was $175,000. A 25 percent decrease in sales implies a 25 percent decrease in total variable costs, so the contribution margin decreases by 25 percent. New contribution margin for strip = $175,000 – 0. 25($175,000) = $131,250. The reasoning is the same for the plank line, but the decrease is 20 percent. New contribution margin for plank = $80,000 – 0. 20($80,000) = $64,000. Therefore, if the parquet floor product line were dropped, the resulting total contribution margin for Hickory would equal $195,250 ($131,250 + $64,000). 2. Differential KeepDropAmount to Keep Contribution margin$305,000$195,250$109,750 Less: Machine rent(55,000)(25,000)(30,000) Supervision(30,000)(25,000)(5,000) Total$220,000$145,250$74,750 Notice that the contribution margin for the drop alternative equals the new contribution margins of the strip and plank lines ($131,250 + $64,000). Also, machine rent and supervision remain relevant across these alternatives. Now the analysis even more heavily favors keeping the parquet line. In fact, company income will be $74,750 higher if all three flooring product lines are kept as opposed to dropping the parquet line. Cornerstone Exercise 13–17 1. Revenue from logs = ($500 ? 8,000) = $4,000,000. 2. Revenue from further processing = $0. 75 ? (8,000 ? 800) = $4,800,000. Further processing cost = $0. 05 ? (8,000 ? 800) = $320,000. Income from further processing = $4,800,000 – $320,000 = $4,480,000. 3. Jack’s should process the logs into lumber because the company will make $4,480,000 versus the $4,000,000 it would make by selling the logs for use in cabins. Cornerstone Exercise 13–18 1. SwoopRufus Contribution margin per unit$5$15 Required machine time per unit? 0. 10a? 0. 50 Contribution margin per hour of machine time$50$30 a0. 10 = [pic]; 0. 50 = [pic] 2. Since the Swoop sweatshirt yields $50 of contribution margin per hour of machine time (which is higher than the $30 contribution margin per hour of machine time for Rufus), all machine time (i. e. , 7,000 hours) should be devoted to the production of Swoop sweatshirts. Units of Swoop = [pic] = 70,000 units The optimal mix is Swoop—70,000 units and Rufus—0 units. 3. Total contribution margin of optimal mix= (70,000 units Swoop)$5 = $350,000 Note: Cornerstone Exercise 13–18 (as well as Cornerstone 13–6) clearly illustrates a fundamentally important point involving relevant decision making with a constrained resource. The point is that when making this relevant decision, one should choose the option with the highest contribution margin per unit of the constrained resource—even if that option does not have the highest contribution margin per unit. For instance, in this exercise, Rufus’ contribution margin is three times greater than Swoop’s contribution margin ($15 gt; $5). However, because each Rufus sweatshirt requires more than three times as much machine time to produce than each Swoop sweatshirt (. 50 machine hour per Rufus sweatshirt gt; 0. 10 machine hour per Swoop sweatshirt), Swoop has a higher contribution margin per machine hour than does Rufus ($50 gt; $30). Cornerstone Exercise 13–19 1. SwoopRufus Contribution margin per unit$5$15 Required machine time per unit? 0. 10a? 0. 50 Contribution margin per hour of machine time$50$30 0. 10 = [pic]; 0. 50 = [pic] Cornerstone Exercise 13–19(Concluded) 2. Since Swoop yields $50 of contribution margin per hour of machine time, the first priority is to produce all of the Swoop sweatshirts that the market will take (i. e. , demands). Machine time required for maximum amount of Swoop = 50,000 maximum units ? 0. 10 hours of machine time required per Sw oop sweatshirt = 5,000 hours needed to manufacture 50,000 Swoop sweatshirts. Remaining machine time for Rufus sweatshirts= 7,000 – 5,000 = 2,000 hours Units of Rufus to be produced in remaining 2,000 hours= [pic] = 4,000 units Now the optimal mix is 50,000 units of Swoop sweatshirts and 4,000 units of Rufus sweatshirts. This mix will precisely exhaust the machine time available. 3. Total contribution margin of optimal mix= (50,000 units Swoop ? $5) + (4,000 units Rufus ? $15) = $310,000 Cornerstone Exercise 13–20 Price= Cost + Markup percentage ? Cost = $95,000 + 0. 15($95,000) = $95,000 + $14,250 = $109,250 Cornerstone Exercise 13–21 1. Desired profit= 0. 10 ? Target price = 0. 10 ? $350 = $35 2. Target cost= Target price – Desired profit = $350 – $35 = $315 4 EXERCISES Exercise 13–22 The correct order is 4, 5, 2, 6, 3, and 1. Exercise 13–23 Steps in Austin’s decision: Step 1:Define the problem. The problem is whether to continue studying at his present university or to study at a university with a nationally recognized engineering program. Step 2:Identify the alternatives. Events A and B. (Students may want to include event I—possible study for a graduate degree. However, future events indicate that Austin still defined his problem as in step 1 above. ) Step 3:Identify costs and benefits associated with each feasible alternative. Events C, E, F, and I. Students may also list E and F in step 5—they are included here because they may help Austin estimate future income benefits. ) Step 4:Total the relevant costs and benefits for each feasible alternative. No specific event is listed for this step, although we can assume that it was done, and that three schools were selected as feasible since event J mentions that two of three applications met with success. Step 5:Assess qualitative factors. Events D, E, F, G, and H. Step 6:Make the decision. Event J is certainly relevant to this. (What did Austin ultimately decide? He decided to stay at SMWU and finish his engineering degree. He also applied for—and won—summer internships with large West coast companies in the aerospace industry. Currently, he’s applying for jobs and [Plan B] looking into graduate programs. ) Exercise 13–24 1. The two alternatives are to make the component in-house or to buy it from Bryce. 2. AlternativesDifferential MakeBuyCost to Make Direct materials$12. 00—$12. 00 Direct labor8. 25—8. 25 Variable overhead3. 50—3. 50 Purchase cost—$25. 00(25. 00) Total relevant cost$23. 75$25. 00$(1. 25) 3. Zion should make the component in-house because operating income will be $12,500 ($1. 25 ? 0,000) higher than if the part were purchased from Bryce. Exercise 13–25 AlternativesDifferential MakeBuyCost to Make Direct materials$12. 00—$12. 00 Direct labor8. 25—8. 25 Variable overhead3. 50—3. 50 Avoidable fixed overhead*1. 501. 50 Purchase cost—$25. 00(25. 00) Total relevant cost$25. 25$25. 00$0. 25 *Avoidable fi xed overhead is the 75% of fixed overhead that would be eliminated if the component were no longer made in-house. Avoidable fixed overhead is relevant because if Zion makes the component, it will incur the cost, but if the component is purchased, that fixed overhead will not be incurred. Zion should purchase the component from Bryce because it will save $2,500 ($0. 25 ? 10,000) over making it in-house. Exercise 13–26 1. The two alternatives are (1) to accept the special order or (2) to reject the special order. 2. Direct materials$3. 00 Direct labor2. 25 Variable overhead1. 15 Total$6. 40 Relevant manufacturing costs are $6. 40 per unit so the gross profit per unit from the special order is $0. 60 ($7. 00 – $6. 40). The increase in gross profit is $9,000 (15,000 ? $0. 60). Exercise 13–27 In this case, it may be easier to deal with the total costs and revenues of the special order: Revenue ($7. 00 ? 5,000)$105,000 Less variable costs: Direct materials ($3. 00 ? 15,000)$45,000 Direct labor ($2. 25 ? 15,000)33,750 Variable overhead ($1. 15 ? 15,000)17,25096,000 Less labeling machine14,000 Loss on special order$(5,000) Smooth Move should reject the special order because it will reduce income by $5,000. Exercise 13–28 If Petoskey drops Conway, overall profit will decrease by $75,000 as a result of the lost contribution margin ($300,000 – $225,000). Note that the direct fixed expense for depreciation is a sunk cost and not relevant to the decision (i. e. , it will remain unchanged whether Conway is kept or dropped). Therefore, the overall impact of dropping Conway is that profit decreases by the 75,000 lost contribution margin. As a result, Petoskey should keep Conway because profits are higher with Conway than without Conway. Exercise 13–29 If Petoskey drops Conway, profit will decrease by $75,000 as a result of the lost contribution margin ($300,000 – $225,000). Note that the direct fixed expense for depreciation is a sunk cost and not relevant to the decision (i. e. , it will remain unchanged whether Conway is kept or dropped). In addition, Petoskey will avoid the $80,000 supervisory salary cost if it drops Conway. Therefore, the overall impact of dropping Conway is that profit decreases by the 75,000 lost contribution margin but increases by the lost supervisory salary of $80,000, which is a net increase in profit of $5,000. Therefore, Petoskey should drop Conway because profits are higher without Conway than with Conway. Exercise 13–30 If Petoskey drops Conway, profit will decrease by $75,000 as a result of the lost contribution margin ($300,000 – $225,000). Note that the direct fixed expense for depreciation is a sunk cost and not relevant to the decision (i. e. , it will remain unchanged whether Conway is kept or dropped). In addition, Petoskey will avoid the $80,000 supervisory salary cost if it drops Conway. Finally, if Petoskey drops Conway, 20% of Alanson’s contribution margin, or $33,000 (i. e. , . 20 ? $165,000), will also be lost as Conway customers shop elsewhere for Alanson. Therefore, the overall impact of dropping Conway is that profit decreases by the lost Conway contribution margin of $75,000, increases by the lost Conway supervisory salary of $80,000, and decreases by the lost Alanson contribution margin of $33,000, which is a net decrease in profit of $28,000. Therefore, Petoskey should keep Conway because profits are higher with Conway than without Conway. Exercise 13–31 1. Contribution margin if HS is sold at split-off= $8 ? 20,000 = $160,000 2. Contribution margin if HS is processed into CS: Revenue ($45 ? 4,000)$180,000 Less further processing cost34,000 Contribution margin$146,000 Bozo should sell HS at split-off; profit from selling at split-off will be $14,000 higher ($160,000 – $146,000) than if it were processed into CS. Exercise 13–32 1. RenoTahoe Unit contribution margin$120$75 Painting department hours? 5? 3 Contribution margin per unit scarce resource$24$25 . Assuming no other constraints, the optimal mix is zero units of Reno and 820 units of Tahoe. Total painting department time is 2,460 hours per year; if all of them are devoted to Tahoe production, then 820 ([pic]) units of Tahoe can be produced. 3. Contribution margin = ($120 ? 0) + ($75 ? 820) = $61,500 Exercise 13–33 1. If 500 units of each p roduct can be sold, then the company will first make and sell 500 units of Tahoe (the product with the higher contribution margin per hour of painting department time). This will take 1,500 (500 units ? 3 hours) hours of painting department time, leaving 960 (2,460 – 1,500) hours for Reno production. This time will yield 192 ([pic]) units of Reno. Optimal mix: 192 units Reno, 500 units Tahoe 2. Total contribution margin = ($120 ? 192) + ($75 ? 500) = $60,540 Exercise 13–34 1. Price of carved bear candle = $12. 00 + (0. 8 ? $12) = $21. 60 2. Price of scented votive candle = $1. 10 + (0. 8 ? $1. 10) = $1. 98 Exercise 13–35 1. Desired profit= 0. 25 ? Target price = 0. 25 ? $75 = $18. 75 2. Target cost= Target price – Desired profit = $75 – $18. 75 = $56. 25 Exercise 13–36 1. The amounts Heather has spent on purchasing and improving the Grand Am are irrelevant because these are sunk costs. . Alternatives Cost ItemRestore Grand AmBuy Neon Transmission$2,000 Water pump400 Master cylinder1,100 Sell Grand Am0$(6,400) Cost of new car09,400 Total$3,500$3,000 Heather should sell the Grand Am and buy the Neon because it provides a net savings of $500. Note: Heather should consider the qualitative factors. If she restores the Grand Am, how much longer will i t last? What about increased license fees and insurance on the newer car? Could she remove the stereo and put it in the Neon without greatly decreasing the Grand Am’s resale value? Exercise 13–37 1. If the analysis is done using total costs, each variable cost as well as the purchase price will be the unit cost multiplied by 35,000 units. The direct fixed overhead of $77,000 is avoidable if the part is purchased. MakeBuy Direct materials$210,000$0 Direct labor70,0000 Variable overhead52,5000 Fixed overhead77,0000 Purchase cost0385,000 Total relevant costs$409,500$385,000 Blasingham should purchase the part. 2. Maximum price = [pic] = $11. 70 per unit 3. Income would increase by $24,500 ($409,500 – $385,000). Exercise 13–38 1. MakeBuy Direct materials$210,000$0 Direct labor70,0000 Variable overhead52,5000 Purchase cost0385,000($11 ? 5,000) Total relevant costs$332,500$385,000 Blasingham should continue manufacturing the part. 2. Maximum price = [pic] = $9. 50 per unit 3. Income would decrease by $52,500 ($385,000 – $332,500). 5 PROBLEMS Problem 13–39 1. If the special order is accepted: Revenues ($7 ? 100,000)$700,000 Direct materials ($2 ? 100,000)(200,000) Direct labor ($1 ? 100,000)(100,000) Variable overhead ($3 ? 100,000)(300,000) Total net benefit$100,000 Fixed overhead and selling costs are irrelevant. If the special order is rejected, there will be no impact on income. Therefore, the quantitative analysis is $100,000 in favor of accepting the special order. . The qualitative factors are those that cannot be easily quantified. The company is faced with a problem of idle capacity. Accepting the special order would bring production up to near capacity and allow the company to avoid laying off employees. This would also enhance the company’s community image. The special-order price is well below the company’s normal price. Will this have a potential impact on regular customers? Considering the fact that the customer is located in a region not usually served by the company, the likelihood of an adverse impact on reg ular business is not high. Problem 13–40 1. Cost ItemMakeBuy Raw materialsa$218,000$0 Direct laborb70,2000 Variable overheadc20,8000 Fixed overheadd58,0000 Purchase coste0340,000 $367,000$340,000 a($70 ? 2,000) + ($130 ? 600). b$27 ? 2,600. c$8 ? 2,600. d$26,000 + $32,000. e($125 ? 2,000) + ($150 ? 600). Net savings by purchasing: $27,000. Hetrick should purchase the crowns rather than make them. Problem 13–40(Concluded) 2. Qualitative factors that Hetrick should consider include quality of crowns, reliability and promptness of producer, and reduction of workforce. 3. It reduces the cost of making the crowns to $335,000, which is less than the cost of buying. . Cost ItemMakeBuy Raw materials$316,000$0 Direct labor108,0000 Variable overhead32,0000 Fixed overhead58,0000 Purchase cost515,000 $514,000$515,000 Hetrick should produce its own crowns if demand increases to this level because the fixed overhead is spread over more units. Problem 13–41 1. @ 600 lbs. Process FurtherSellDifference Revenuesa$24,000$7,200$16,800 Bagsb0(39)39 S hippingc(384)(60)(324) Grindingd(1,500)0(1,500) Bottlese(2,400)0(2,400) $19,716$7,101$12,615 a600 ? 10 ? $4 = $24,000; $12 ? 600. b$1. 30 ? [pic]. c[pic] ? $1. 60 = $384; $0. 10 ? 600 = $60. d$2. 50 ? 600. 10 ? 600 ? $0. 40. Zanda should process depryl further. 2. [pic] = $21. 025 additional income per pound $21. 025 ? 265,000 = $5,571,625 Problem 13–42 1. System ASystem BHeadsetTotal Sales$45,000$32,500$8,000$85,500 Variable expenses20,00025,5003,20048,700 Contribution margin$25,000$7,000$4,800$36,800 Direct fixed cost526a11,158b1,016c12,700 Segment margin$24,474$(4,158)$3,784$24,100 Common fixed cost18,000 Operating income$6,100 a$45,000/$85,500 ? $18,000 = $9,474; $10,000 – $9,474 = $526. b$32,500/$85,500 ? $18,000 = $6,842; $18,000 – $6,842 = $11,158. c$8,000/$85,500 ? 18,000 = $1,684; $2,700 – $1,684 = $1,016. 2. System AHeadsetTotal Sales$58,500$6,000$64,500 Variable expenses26,0002,40028,400 Contribution margin$32,500$3,600$36,100 Direct fixed cost s5261,0161,542 Segment margin$31,974$2,584$34,558 Common fixed costs18,000 Operating income$16,558 System B should be dropped. 3. System ASystem CHeadsetTotal Sales$45,000$26,000$7,200$78,200 Variable expenses20,00013,0002,88035,880 Contribution margin$25,000$13,000$4,320$42,320 Direct fixed costs52611,1581,01612,700 Segment margin$24,474$1,842$3,304$29,620 Common fixed costs18,000 Operating income$11,620 Replacing B with C is better than keeping B, but not as good as dropping B without replacement with C. Problem 13–43 1. Steve should consider selling the part for $1. 85 because his division’s profits would increase $12,800: AcceptReject Revenues (2 ? $1. 85 ? 8,000)$29,600$0 Variable expenses16,8000 Total$12,800$0 Pat’s divisional profits would increase by $18,400: AcceptReject Revenues ($32 ? 8,000)$256,000$0 Variable expenses: Direct materials ($17 ? 8,000)(136,000)0 Direct labor ($7 ? 8,000)(56,000)0 Overhead ($2 ? 8,000)(16,000)0 Component (2 ? $1. 85 ? 8,000)(29,600) 0 Total relevant benefits$18,400$0 2. Pat should accept the $2 price. This price will increase the cost of the component from $29,600 to $32,000 (2 ? $2 ? 8,000) and yield an incremental benefit of $16,000 ($18,400 – $2,400). Steve’s division will see an increase in profit of $15,200 (8,000 units ? 2 components per unit ? $0. 95 contribution margin per component). 3. Yes. At full price, the total cost of the component is $36,800 (2 ? $2. 30 ? 8,000), an increase of $7,200 over the original offer. This still leaves an increase in profits of $11,200 ($18,400 – $7,200). (See the answer to Requirement 1. ) Problem 13–44 1. Markup = [pic] = 0. 63, or 63% . Direct materials$1,800 Direct labor1,600 Overhead800 Total cost$4,200 Add: Markup2,646 Initial bid$6,846 Problem 13–45 1. BasicStandardDeluxe Price$9. 00$30. 00$35. 00 Variable cost6. 0020. 0010. 00 Contribution margin$3. 00$10. 00$25. 00 ? Machine hours? 0. 10? 0. 50? 0. 75 Contribution margin per machine hour$30. 00$20. 00$33. 33 The com pany should sell only the deluxe unit with contribution margin per machine hour of $33. 33. Sealing can produce 20,000 ([pic]) deluxe units per year. These 20,000 units, multiplied by the $25 contribution margin per unit, would yield a total contribution margin of $500,000. . First, produce and sell 12,000 deluxe units, which would use 9,000 machine hours. Then, produce and sell 50,000 basic units, which would use 5,000 machine hours. Finally, with the remaining 1,000 machine hours, produce 2,000 standard units. Total contribution margin= ($3 ? 50,000) + ($25 ? 12,000) + ($10 ? 2,000) = $470,000 Problem 13–46 1. The company should not accept the offer because the additional revenue is less than the additional costs (assuming fixed overhead is allocated and will not increase with the special order): Incremental revenue per box$4. 20 Incremental cost per box4. 25 Loss per box$(0. 05) Total loss: $0. 05 ? 5,000 = $250 2. Costs associated with the layoff: Increase state UI premiums (0. 01 ? $1,460,000)$14,600 Notification costs ($25 ? 20)500 Rehiring and retraining costs ($150 ? 20)3,000 Total$18,100 The order should be accepted. The loss of $250 on the order is more than offset by the $18,100 savings by not laying off employees. Problem 13–47 1. Sales$263,000 Costs223,000 Operating profit$40,000 2. SellProcess FurtherDifference Revenues$40,000$75,000$35,000 Further processing cost023,90023,900 Operating income (loss)$40,000$51,100$11,100 The company should process Delta further because gross profit would increase by $11,100 if it were processed further. (Note: Joint costs are irrelevant to this decision because the company will incur them whether or not Delta is processed further. ) Problem 13–48 1. ($30 ? 2,000) + ($60 ? 4,000) = $300,000 2. JunoHera Contribution margin$30$60 ? Pounds of material? 2? 5 Contribution margin/pound$15$12 Norton should make as much of Juno as can be sold and then make Hera. 2,000 units of Juno ? 2 = 4,000 pounds 16,000 pounds – 4,000 pounds = 12,000 pounds for Hera Hera production = [pic] = 2,400 units Product mix is 2,000 Juno and 2,400 Hera. Total contribution margin= (2,000 ? $30) + (2,400 ? $60) = $204,000 Problem 13–49 1. ProcessDifferential Amount SellFurtherto Process Further Revenues$24,000$33,000$9,000 Processing cost—4,1004,100 Total$24,000$28,900$4,900 Germain should be processed further as it will increase profit by $4,900 for every 1,000 liters. 2. ProcessDifferential Amount SellFurtherto Process Further Revenues$24,000$33,000$9,000 Processing cost—(4,100)(4,100) Distribution cost—(800)(800) Commissions—(3,300)(3,300) Total$24,000$24,800$800 Germain should be processed further as it will increase profit by $800 for every 1,000 liters. Note that the liability issue was not quantified so it would need to be considered as a qualitative factor, further reducing the attractiveness of making geraiten. Problem 13–50 1. Monthly cost for FirstBank: Checking accounts: Maintenance fees ($5 ? 6)$30 Foreign DR/CR ($0. 10 ? 200)20 Returned checks ($3 ? 25)75 Earnings on deposits ($0. 50 ? 300)(150)$(25) Credit card fees ($0. 50 ? 4,000)2,000 Wire transfers [($15 ? 40) + ($50 ? 60)]3,600 Line of credit charges [pic]($100,000)500 Internet banking charges20 Total monthly charges$6,095 One-time Internet setup fees ($15 ? 6 accounts)$90 Problem 13–50(Concluded) Monthly cost for Community Bank: Checking accounts: Returned checks ($2 ? 25)$50 Credit card fees Per item ($0. 50 ? 4,000)$2,000 Batch processing ($7 ? 20)1402,140 Wire transfers ($30 ? 100)3,000 Line of credit charges [pic] ($100,000)583 Total monthly charges$5,773 Monthly cost for RegionalOne Bank: Checking accounts: Foreign DR/CR ($0. 20 ? 200)$40 Returned checks ($3. 80 ? 25)95 Earnings on deposits ($0. 30 ? 300)(90)$45 Credit card fees ($0. 50 ? 4,000)2,000 Wire transfers [($10 ? 40) + ($55 ? 60)]3,700 Line of credit charges [pic] ($100,000)542 Internet banking charges20 Total monthly charges$6,307 Community Bank has the lowest overall monthly fees. On quantitative factors alone, it would be chosen. 2. If the full online banking access were crucial, Community Bank would be eliminated immediately. This leaves FirstBank and RegionalOne Bank. The two sets of monthly costs are similar, $6,095 for FirstBank versus $6,307 for RegionalOne. Now, the banking relationship, comfort level of Kicker with the loan officer, and confidence in the bank’s ability to respond quickly and appropriately to Kicker’s needs will be the deciding factors. Additionally, some further negotiation would probably be done—for example, on the interest rate on the line of credit. 6 CASES Case 13–51 1. Pamela should not have told Roger about the deliberations concerning the power department because this is confidential information. She had been explicitly told to keep the details quiet but deliberately informed the head of the unit affected by the potential decision. (Standard II: 1) Her revelation may be interpreted as actively or passively subverting the attainment of the organization’s legitimate and ethical objectives. 2. The romantic relationship between Pamela and Roger sets up a conflict of interest for this particular decision, and Pamela should have withdrawn from any active role in it. (Standard III: 1) However, she should definitely provide the information she currently has about the cost of eliminating the power department. To not do so would be active subversion of the organization’s legitimate and ethical objectives. Moreover, she has the obligation to communicate information fairly and to disclose all relevant information that could reasonably be expected to influence an intended user’s understanding. In addition, however, Pamela should discuss the qualitative effects of eliminating the power department. The effects on workers, community relations, reliability of external service, and any ethical commitments the company may have to its workers should all enter into the decision. Pamela should communicate the short-term quantitative effects and express her concerns about the qualitative factors. She should also project what the costs of operating internally would be for the next five years and compare that with estimates of the costs of external acquisition. Case 13–52 1. Salesa$3,751,500 Less: Variable expensesb2,004,900 Contribution margin$1,746,600 Less: Direct fixed expensesc1,518,250 Divisional margin$228,350 Less: Common fixed expensesc299,250 Operating (loss)$(70,900) aBased on sales of 41,000 units Let X = Units sold [pic]+ [pic]= $3,751,500 $183X= $7,503,000 X= 41,000 units b[pic] =$66. 40Manufacturing cost 20. 00Fixed overhead $46. 40Per internal unit variable cost 5. 00Selling $51. 40Per external unit variable cost Variable costs= ($46. 40 ? 20,500) + ($51. 40 ? 20,500) = $2,004,900 Fixed selling and admin: $1,100,000 – $5(20,500) = $997,500 Direct fixed selling and admin: 0. 7 ? $997,500 = $698,250 Direct fixed overhead: $20 ? 41,000 = $820,000 Total direct fixed expenses = $698,250 + $820,000 = $1,518,250 Common fixed expenses = 0. 3 ? $997,500 = $299,250 2. KeepDrop Sales$3,751,500$— Variable costs(2,004,900)(2,050,000)* Direct fixed expenses(1,518,250)— Annuity—100,000 Total$228,350$(1,95 0,000) *$100 ? 20,500 (The units transferred internally must be purchased externally. ) The company should keep the division. Case 13–53 Answers will vary.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Free Essays on Pschology

Men and Women What influences a person’s identity? Is it their homes, parents, religion, or maybe where they live? When do they get one? Do they get it when they understand right from wrong, or when they can read, or are they born with it? Everyone has one and nobody has the same, is there a point in everyone’s life when they get one? A person’s identity is his own, nobody put it there and nobody can take it out. Everyone in this world has a different identity because they all make their own over the course of their life. A person’s identity also causes a person to have masculine and feminine traits. There is no one thing that gives a person their identity, there are however many different factors that contribute to one’s identity. What is someone’s identity? Is it the way they look, the way they dress, or it could be many things all put together, or is it none of the above? To me someone’s identity is a part of their being. Nobody will ever hold it, touch it, or even see it, but it is there. Everybody has one, it guilds your decision making, your thoughts, ideas, and dreams. You may think something is terrible while someone else does not even care and yet another person may laugh, why? The answer is simple, everyone has his own identity and personality. Everyone feels, acts, thinks, and dreams differently. People may have some of these things in common with one another, but they will not be totally the same, it is like a fingerprint, unique. There are many origins to a person’s identity, their family, friends, home life, religion, environment and others. But how does it get there, you do not go into a store and pick on off the shelf. A person’s identity is developed over many years and put together by the person themselves. It comes from the individuals ability to think, reason and form an opinion. Nobody has the same mind, ... Free Essays on Pschology Free Essays on Pschology Men and Women What influences a person’s identity? Is it their homes, parents, religion, or maybe where they live? When do they get one? Do they get it when they understand right from wrong, or when they can read, or are they born with it? Everyone has one and nobody has the same, is there a point in everyone’s life when they get one? A person’s identity is his own, nobody put it there and nobody can take it out. Everyone in this world has a different identity because they all make their own over the course of their life. A person’s identity also causes a person to have masculine and feminine traits. There is no one thing that gives a person their identity, there are however many different factors that contribute to one’s identity. What is someone’s identity? Is it the way they look, the way they dress, or it could be many things all put together, or is it none of the above? To me someone’s identity is a part of their being. Nobody will ever hold it, touch it, or even see it, but it is there. Everybody has one, it guilds your decision making, your thoughts, ideas, and dreams. You may think something is terrible while someone else does not even care and yet another person may laugh, why? The answer is simple, everyone has his own identity and personality. Everyone feels, acts, thinks, and dreams differently. People may have some of these things in common with one another, but they will not be totally the same, it is like a fingerprint, unique. There are many origins to a person’s identity, their family, friends, home life, religion, environment and others. But how does it get there, you do not go into a store and pick on off the shelf. A person’s identity is developed over many years and put together by the person themselves. It comes from the individuals ability to think, reason and form an opinion. Nobody has the same mind, ...

Friday, November 22, 2019

Multilingual Create a Secondary Language Profile on LinkedIn®

Multilingual Create a Secondary Language Profile on LinkedIn ® Are you bilingual or multilingual? The general rule on LinkedIn ® is that you may only have one profile; having multiple profiles is a violation of the Terms of Service that could get you booted off the site. However, there is one exception to that rule: the Secondary Language Profile. As of January 2013, over 64% of LinkedIn ® members are located outside of the US. Because such a large portion of users are multilingual and interested in connecting with people both inside and outside of English-speaking countries, LinkedIn ®Ã‚   allows users to set up additional LinkedIn ® profiles that cater to secondary languages. LinkedIn ® supports the following languages: English | Czech | Danish | Dutch | French| German | Indonesian | Italian | Japanese | Korean | Malay | Norwegian | Polish | Portuguese | Romanian | Russian| Spanish | Swedish| Tagalog | Turkish Click here for a list of languages supported by LinkedIn ® mobile applications. NOTE: You cannot change the default language of your profile once youve set it up in a particular language. Its recommended that you set up a secondary language profile instead. Creating a Profile in Another Language To create a profile in another language, go to your Profile page and click the down arrow to the right of your Edit Profile button. Select Create profile in another language:    Choose your language from the dropdown menu:    Youll also want to update your Professional Headline. Then click Create Profile. The language you select will determine the default language for your profile display and also the language in which you will receive messages from the LinkedIn Corporation. Content and messages will always be displayed in the language in which they are written. LinkedIn ® does not translate content or messages for you, so you will need to go through each section and update all necessary fields. Remember to save each section before continuing onto the next. When a member signs in to LinkedIn ® and views your profile, they will see it in the language you chose when you set up your account; or, if you have multiple profiles in several languages, viewers will see the one most relevant to them. The viewer has the ability to choose from your language profiles by selecting one from the dropdown menu underneath your profile photo.    All of your language profiles will show up in search engines and have their own URL. You can also delete a secondary language profile by select the language from this dropdown list. Just select Delete this profile link and click Delete. Let me know if this article was useful to you! Also note that the inspiration for this topic came from a question submitted by one of my readers so please do contribute your ideas if you have them! Finally, a Bonus Tip on Secondary Language Profiles has been added to the 7th Edition of How to Write a KILLER LinkedIn Profile coming soon!

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

''In this complex world compagnies have objectives that are not Essay

''In this complex world compagnies have objectives that are not stricly economic'' Discuss - Essay Example Societal demands on new roles for companies on societal needs are forcing companies to think beyond any traditional philanthropy that they were engaged in to company objectives that are not strictly economic. Traditional philanthropy may be viewed as the only times when companies deviated from spending their resources without real tangible returns to their coffers. This was however limited to activities towards their employees or in a minimal manner to the society or societies in which they operated. The complex dimension that has arisen for companies is the demand from societies that they need to show more concern for the societies in which they operate. Such a perspective is reflected in the call of the United Nations for companies around the world to be aware and show adopt more socially oriented objectives as they explore opportunities (Magee, 2007). With the concept of globalization and the global village become more of a reality than a considered possibility actions of companies oriented towards economic concerns with societal detrimental effects have a means of spreading to all corners of the globe, which has made the societal demands for responsibility from companies more strident. This has led to the concept of corporate social responsibility, wherein companies become aware of the needs of maintaining the environment in which they operate and assistance to societal needs and are encouraged to incorporate them among the objectives of the company. This has resulted in environment orientation, social buying, and social advertisements as examples of the incorporation of non-economic criterion being incorporated in company objectives (Drumwright & Murphy, 2001). Since the last decade of the twentieth the concept of corporate greening, wherein companies have become more aware and concerned about their environmental responsibilities and have shown the tendency to incorporate this non-economic criterion among their objectives has attracted a lot

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Reactions to Industrial Domination Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Reactions to Industrial Domination - Essay Example The case considered here are multinational agro food companies. As in any entity, aside from corporate objectives of increased sales of products and services, these companies want to be seen as having humanitarian causes. They are pictured as companies who solve problems of poor countries, particularly in terms of hunger, through new technologies and free trade agreements. There is no objection to that. But behind these objectives, are the underlying reasons that these large corporations have a great ability to influence the market because of their large market share. Again as in OPEC, any increase or decline in oil production has a dramatic effect worldwide. The flow of activities in industrial domination creates uneven distribution of wealth, and draws a big impact on the global economy. For instance, in food production, the system underpays their inputs and overpays their outputs. Here since there are few sellers, big corporations can command a price and exert their power to farmers in buying expensive agricultural inputs. and into buying the farmers' product at a bargain price, and sometimes lesser than it cost to grow them. This alone is a disadvantageous position to farmers. Not only that, the large ... Unknown to the public, these corporations influences the industry as it formulates guidelines on nutrition, food safety regulations, and rules for labeling and content disclosure which all work for their benefit. The monopoly of food conglomerates has the power to set wages and farm gate prices which is usually tipping the edge advantageous to the corporations by setting a below levels of farm gate prices, workers' wages and benefits. The implication here starts when farmers are forced to sell their lands by the agribusiness powers, and in other developing countries, sometimes called third world countries, the fall down of domestic market due to the pressure of dumped imports. Domestic market cannot compete with the dumped imports eventually leading to the closing of factories and abandonment of agricultural lands. Workers, then have no resort but to accept low wages, work under poor conditions in the factories of giant corporations, and often restricted in labor rights, or others consider migration. Effects on environment. While the damage to environment cannot be felt now, the future generation will feel the effects particularly on agriculture, when there would be soil erosion, water depletion, toxic contamination, and loss of" bio-diversity" that will deplete the natural resources . The loss will be shouldered by the people, while the gains are raked by these conglomerates. Influence on taxes and subsidies. The public is kept uninformed that they are actually subsidizing these companies thru taxes. Because of influence, and complexity of operations, big companies found a way of reduced tax liabilities.

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Photostory Essay Essay Example for Free

Photostory Essay Essay This essay is to comment on my photo story that I did for my coursework, I will be talking about various things like the lighting, costumes and mise-en-scene, what they did for the photo story and how it helped. The genre I chose for my photo story was a sports genre. I thought it would appeal to the vast majority of male readers of around 14-18 years old, as it is a football magazine, which I have called The Kick-A-Bout Crew. I think that the story I chose would also interest younger readers as an incident like this one could crop up in their everyday lives. In a newsagents local to me, most of the space for papers and comics had been taken up by football magazines; this is partly why I used a football idea. If I were to sell my magazine, I would be very confident that my target audience would be teenage boys, and my grey market would be female readers as they are not likely to want to read football stories very often in most cases, but not unheard of. I would be very satisfied with this target audience. The way my story was narrated was through caption boxes and speech bubbles; this made my story quite easy to understand without too much difficulty. My captions were being placed at the bottom of a photo, to be read first, while the speech bubbles on the photo, perhaps slipping onto the background of the document to make sure that they didnt cover up the characters faces. I placed my speech bubbles in the direction the storys pictures were placed, normally flowing from left to right so as to make it easier to read. I used many different camera angles, to subtly highlight the events occurring in my story. For my first photo, I took an establishing shot from a fairly long distance away, taking it from a high angle to symbolize the fact that the boys are really just kids, innocent in youth and also to show the readers were the story takes place. In my second photo I take the photo as a medium shot, from a slightly low angle, so that it appears to the readers that the watching boy is much taller physically and symbolically than Paul and Jimmy showing that he is more important. For my third and fourth shots, I used eye-level close-ups that display the clear emotion on both of the boys faces, to depict to the readers the emotions of the boys and put the readers in their positions. The fifth photo is simply an eye-level medium shot that was the plainest and most obvious way to show the audience what is happening quite clearly. When my main character, Paul, gets tackled, the photo is taken from a high angle from a medium distance for the first view of it, to show the vulnerability of Paul to the audience before switching to an eye-level close-up to make the readers see how cheap the tackle was. The next shot is taken back to a high-angle showing the discomfort and pain that Paul is feeling, making him pitiful to the audience and to make them feel sorry for him, whilst not showing the boy, who is helping Paul up in the same light. For the next shot I used another eye-level medium shot, with a slight over-the-shoulder feel to it were you see Jimmy listening in behind the two talking boys, to show his sly jealous side to the more judgmental of the readers. For my penultimate shot I used an eye-level long shot to fit the characters all in but not leave too much background so the audience are drawn to the colour and action of the shot. And finally I used an eye-level close-up of Jimmy getting punched; the camera is supposedly a first-person view from Paul, to make the audience feel as though theyre throwing the punch. I think that all of these different angles have really illustrated the point that I was trying to make in each photo, they help keep the readers entertained and even kind of involved and would easily help them to understand the characters. I used particular colours in my background to lure my readers attention and immediately tell them the type of story I have chosen. I used a background of green and white like a football field and had the title set against a black and white football, in the actual title the word foul was a chilling blood red in the style of chiller. For each of my photos I used a different colour for each caption boxes to try and not make the page too boring and also to try and describe the photos, for instance at the start of the story where it is just a friendly kick about the caption box is a merry yellow, while proceeding through the story coming to the tackle it has slowing turned to a violent shade of scarlet. I shot my photo story at Dundonald Playing Fields as it fitted in with the story and provided a good mise-en-scene. Its in the grounds of a shabby looking high school to show that these kids lead a normal school life and this is their day to day surroundings, a the dual carriage way in the background shows how busy the place is and stands for their urban lives. I also used different costumes to display the type of characters starring in my photo story. Jimmy wore a black tracksuit to show him as the villain, while Paul wore a green and grey Northern Ireland tracksuit, to show that he is not exactly good as gold either, but generally decent and has strong loyalties. The boy watching is wearing a bright red Man U top to show that he is very friendly and is chasing a spot on Manchester United Youth team. The only lighting was the afternoon sky that made it seem as though they were still at school having a lunch-time game. The football and the goalposts fitted in nicely with the story giving it that sporty touch. I also added a competition to star in the magazine, which I thought would really grab the readers attention and spread the word to their friends. These are all the devices and techniques I used to make the story interesting, eye-catching and comprehendible.